Steven Smeltzer

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Diving the USS Kittiwake shipwreck is a great experience.  In fact, if you have not been diving on the ship lately you are in for a real treat.

Diving the USS Kittiwake

USS Kittiwake. ASR-13. Grand Cayman

In October 2017 Tropical Storm Nate pitched the USS Kittwake on its side and up against the reef.

As a result, diving the USS Kittiwake shipwreck now provides an entirely different scuba diving experience.  Previously she rested squarely on her keel, much like she was still sailing on the surface of the sea.  However, she now looks and feels much more like a shipwreck.Shaft Alley

Furthermore, navigation in the interior of the ship is more interesting.  Likewise the feel of the ship has changed completely.  The angle of the decks, walls and ceilings challenge your orientation and gives you the sense of a “true shipwreck”.  Coral and algae continue to grow, and more fishes can be seen in and around the ship.

USS Kittiwake shipwreck

USS Kittiwake. ASR-13. Grand Cayman

If you are wreck certified, shaft alley and the lower decks offer great opportunities for exploration. With numerous entry and egress points diving the USS Kittiwake is safe and quite interesting. Furthermore, the ship provides a great opportunity for training on wreck diving and exploration.

Whether you are a recreational or beginning diver to an experienced wreck diver, diving the USS Kittiwake offers a wonderful scuba diving adventure.


Diving the USS Kittiwake – History

The government of Grand Cayman sank the USS Kittiwake just off Seven

Engineering Logo

Engineering Logo, USS Kittiwake. ASR-13. Grand Cayman

Mile Beach in 2011.  Previously, the ship had a 54-year career in the US Navy as a submarine rescue ship.  This ship utilized scuba divers throughout her career in the US Navy.  Now, fittingly, she serves scuba divers in the Cayman Islands.

The USS Kittiwake Shipwreck has matured gracefully since she has been sunk. Though the logo is all but gone in the engine room, mirrors are gone or broken, and the upper part of the ship trimmed to prevent hazards on the surface, the wreck maintains an elegant grace.

While diving the USS Kittiwake you will find the lower shaft alley and other areas in the lower part of the ship are a bit more difficult to USS Kittiwake shipwrecknavigate.  However, this again makes the dive a bit more alluring and challenging.  Entry into the lower portions of the ship requires a shipwreck certification and should not be entered without the requisite training.

In conclusion, I hope you can go to Grand Cayman and take the opportunity for diving the USS Kittiwake.  It will be a memorable experience.

View my complete gallery of the USS Kittiwake prior to your dives to get the most from the experience.


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We just completed another great trip to Maui, Hawaii, chasing the beautiful Scalloped Hammerhead Sharks.  A few weeks before the trip, Deepblu asked me to take their Cosmiq+ Dive Computer out for a test.  I readily agreed. I love trying out new gear.

In reviewing the Deepblu Cosmiq+ Dive Computer, I focused on several key capabilities:

  •   Ease of use
  •   Readability
  •   Screen Layout
  •   Features and functions
  •   Price

Follow this link for photographs of the Scalloped Hammerhead sharks and other sharks from Hawaii. Similarly, you can view articles on Scalloped Hammerheads on my blog.

What comes in the box. 

Cosmiq+ Dive Computer
Deepblu Cosmiq+ Dive Computer

The Deepblu Cosmiq+ Dive Computer comes in a compact case. The case contains the Dive Computer, screen protectors, charger, dry suit strap and a secondary wrist strap. 

The screen is approximately 2.2 inches/55.8cm tall.  The Deepblu Cosmiq+ Dive Computer comes in a variety of strap colors and matching screen surrounds. The Cosmiq+ also includes a Social Platform for logging and sharing dive information. 

Cosmiq+ Dive Computer
Inside the Csomiq+ Case

The Cosmiq+ only has two adjustment buttons on the computer.  Most settings require the use of an Android or iPhone smartphone to adjust.  Only adjustments to Nitrox settings can be made on the computer itself.

The Cosmiq+ Dive Computer screen includes readings for no-deco time remaining, dive time, depth, Nitrox % (if applicable). There are also readings for water temperature and ascent time. Furthermore, due to the size of the display all readings are clearly displayed and easy to read. 

The Cosmiq+ Dive Computer does not support technical diving. However, it provides modes to use as a dive computer, backup depth gauge, freediving watch and as a regular watch. 

The Cosmiq+ Dive Computer stores the last 25 dives in its logbook for quick reference. The computer enables uploading logs wirelessly to the Deepblu Social Application. This application enables divers to keep and share dive logs with your dive buddies. The social aspect is an interesting addition and seems to be popular, especially with younger divers.

Cosmiq+ Dive Computer What I Like

At a price of $349, the Cosmiq+ Dive computer is a very interesting option for scuba divers.  It has all the capabilities needed for a beginning / occasional scuba divers and even advanced scuba divers. 

The Cosmiq+ uses the Bühlmann ZHL-16C Decompression Algorithm model. While this model is conservative, you can switch to the Progressive mode. As a result, you will be able to extend your bottom time.  In the Progressive mode, the watch performed very closely to my Suunto Steel in the Aggressive mode. 

Cosmiq+ Dive Computer
Buy: Deepblu Cosmiq+ Dive Computer

However, before changing safety settings divers should make sure they are well trained regarding decompression sickness.  Scuba divers using the progressive mode should be in good shape and very comfortable with diving.

The Cosmiq+ Dive Computer is rechargeable via a cable with a magnetic connector.  Over my two-week trip, I recharged the computer four times.  While, the Cosmiq+ reportedly holds about 7 hours on a charge, I never exhausted the battery before recharging. 

Another neat feature of the Cosmiq+ is the ability to push updates to the computer via Bluetooth. This OTA (Over the air) capability keeps the computers software up to date.  This is a feature that I really like and it is similar to my Suunto Steel. This feature enables Deepblu to provide ongoing updates to the computer.   As a result the Cosmiq+ Dive Computer can easily stay current with new features and capabilities being delivered by Deepblu.

During the Dive

The large display on the watch is easy to read underwater in most situations.  However, in bright sunlight the display was a bit more difficult to read. Consequently, on a safety stop, you may need to shade the computer to easily read the screen. Reading the computer display directly in the sun during your surface interval can also be challenging.

I adjusted the safety setting on the Cosmiq+ to the progressive mode. Furthermore, for Nitrox dives, I set the PPO setting to 1.6, which is the same setting I use on my Suunto Steel. My dives were on average around 55 minutes and I had no problem staying within the nodeco timeframe.

On non-technical dives, I make sure I do not get any closer than 5 minutes to no-deco time. On any deep dives, or consecutive deeper dives, I use Nitrox. I again manage my dive time and depth to make sure I stay out of deco mode. Consequently, during this trip Nitrox was important, since the Scalloped Hammerheads are often at 60 to 100 feet. If I was using air, I would have had an issue with the no-deco time. My air dives times would have been cut short, or I would have had to stay much shallower.

Certainly, I highly encourage any diver to become Nitrox certified. Nitrox is a very safe gas. It allows you to dive safely for longer periods of time at depth of up to approximately 130 feet. Note: This assumes a PPO setting of 1.6 and a Nitrox mix of 32%.

Cosmiq+ Dive Computer Ease of Use

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark
Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini, (Griffith & Smith, 1834), Molokai, Hawaii, Moku Ho’oniki Rock

Ease of use is very important to me. I carry a large underwater camera housing with strobes attached.  Consequently, I need my dive computer to be readily accessible and easy to read.  I don’t like looking for a computer that is attached to my regulator. 

With a quick glance at the Cosmiq+ Dive Computer, I see my total dive time, depth and no-deco time remaining. The large screen made reading my dive related information quite easy.

While the strap is a bit different, it was fairly intuitive. The strap held the Cosmiq+ exactly where I wanted it.  I wore the computer in both a normal watch position and mounted on the inside of my wrist.  I found I could read the display easily in either position.

What Could be Better

First of all, the magnet on the charger for the Cosmiq+ Dive Computer is a bit weak. It can be easily knocked off the watch which will cause the charging cycle to stop. 

Setting the computer to use Nitrox is a bit clunky. You can only adjust the mix in one direction. Therefore, if you accidentally set the mix to high, you must cycle back around to the correct number.

Furthermore, the computer does not have an air integration option.  Adding a transmitter to provide tank pressure, would be great. This is especially important for divers that want to have all their dive related information in a single device. 

Likewise, the Cosmiq+ does not have navigation capabilities.  Again, I prefer a dive computer that includes everything in a single device. However, price could become an issue as additional features are added.  Maybe a Cosmiq+ 2.0 is in the works with both air integration and navigation.  That would be cool. 

Cosmiq+ Dive Computer Summary

In summary, I find the Cosmiq+ to be a good dive computer. It is best suited for the recreational scuba divers up to the advanced, non-technical diver.  The price is reasonably competitive. Therefore, if you are willing to have multiple gauges, take a serious look at this dive computer.  Alternatively, this dive computer could provide an economical backup computer for an advanced diver using air or Nitrox. and are participants in the Amazon Associates Program. As an Amazon Associate I earn fees from qualifying purchases from and affiliated sites.

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Back in Maui and I cannot wait for my first Scalloped Hammerhead Shark dive off of Molokai.  We come back here each year for this dive and it is one of my favorite dives on the planet.  The rich biodiversity of this dive site, the great topography and of course, the Scalloped Hammerheads.

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini, Molokai Hawaii, Mokuho’oniki Rock

I have been diving on this site now for over 10 years and it never gets old.  It is an advanced dive and the seas can be quite rough but oh, what a dive.  If you get the chance to dive here, I highly recommend it.

I dive the site with Lahaina Divers, which is the only dive operator on Maui that goes to this site.  Lahaina Divers is a great dive company, extremely professional and competent with a number of diver professionals that have been on Maui for a number of years.

Mokuhooniki Rock

Mokuhooniki rock is situated off the northeastern point of Molokai in the Pailolo Channel. The trip takes about an hour from of Lahaina Harbor.  You do a two-tank dive on the site with a surface interval of about 45 minutes.  I dive this on Nitrox to help with bottom time, especially given the short surface interval.  This will also allow you to descend to depth when needed for that perfect shot. The dive site ranges from 60 to 110 feet although at the end of the dive you could be in water that is over 150 feet.

The Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini is an amazing creature. The adult can reach up to 14 feet in length but those found around Mokuhooniki rock tend to be around 6 to 10 feet in length.   They typically can be found swimming alone or in small groups of 2 and 3s.  However, there are times when these sharks begin to gather especially towards the summer where you can see dozens swimming together on this site.

Scalloped Hammerhead

The Scalloped Hammerhead Shark tends to be a very shy shark.  The worse thing any diver can do is to swim aggressively toward the

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark

Interaction – Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini, Molokai Hawaii

shark with their GoPro hoping for that amazing shot.  The result, of this behavior, is the shark will turn and swim away and deny the rest of the dive group a chance to interact with the shark.  The best way to observe most sharks is to stay still or move slowly.  The Scalloped Hammerhead is curious and if your dive group is still and chill you may well get an encounter you will never forget.  I have had these marvelous sharks circle me for over 7 minutes on on a dive.  But again, your group typically needs to be very relaxed to be able to get these sharks interact with you and the rest of your dive buddies.

I like to stay around 60 to 65 feet and look into the blue to spot the sharks.  When I see some that are close or look like they may come in close I slowly descend to their depth, typically about 80 to 90 feet.  However, these sharks can be anywhere in the water column so make sure you keep your head on a swivel.  I like to stay on the outside of  the dive group and towards Molokai on this dive.  Typically, I stay about 10  meters away from Dive Master.  This position allows me to better interact with the sharks without worrying as much about other divers behavior.  However, you will encounter sharks close to Mokuho’oniki Rock and in the middle of the channel.  So don’t worry, just keep looking and watching your dive guide.

This is amazing dive site.  Take your time and enjoy.

The pool is open…….

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Arrival St Regis Vommuuli Island Maldives

Male, Maldives, Island City

Paradise Found

The Republic of Maldives is one of the most unique geological places on our planet.  Made up of 26 atolls and over 1,150 islands spread across approximately 35,000 sq. miles.  It is one of the most dispersed countries on earth.  It is also the lowest country on earth with more than 80 % of the country’s land less than one meter above sea level.  The Maldives lies close to the equator between latitudes 1°S and 8°N and longitudes 72° and 74°E.


Rising Ocean Temperatures

While these islands are one of the most beautiful places on earth, the Maldives has been challenged with high sea temperatures.  In 1998, sea-temperature warming of as much as 5 °C (9.0 °F), due to a single El Niño phenomenon event, caused coral bleaching, killing almost two thirds of the nation’s coral reefs.

To induce the regrowth of the reefs, scientists placed electrified cones anywhere from 20–60 feet (6.1–18.3 m) below the surface to provide a substrate for larval coral attachment. In 2004, scientists witnessed corals regenerating. Corals began to eject pink-orange eggs and sperm. The growth of these electrified corals was five times faster than untreated corals.

St. Regis Vommuli Island Maldives

St. Regis Vommuli Island Maldives

El Niño

Scientist Azeez Hakim stated:  “before 1998, we never thought that this reef would die. We had always taken for granted that these animals would be there, that this reef would be there forever. El Niño gave us a wake-up call that these things are not going to be there forever. Not only this, they also act as a natural barrier against the tropical storms, floods and tsunamis. Seaweeds grow on the skeletons of dead coral.”

Again, in 2016, the coral reefs of the Maldives experienced a severe bleaching incident. The surface water temperatures reached an all-time high in 2016, at 31 degrees Celsius in May 2016.  Over 95% of coral around the islands died, and, even after six months, 100% of young coral transplants had died.   While this event challenged the local marine life, a trip to the Maldives will not disappoint.  The biodiversity on the reef is still incredible.

Maldives Fantasy Island

Arrival St Regis Vommuuli Island Maldives

St Regis Vommuuli Island Maldives

During our trip, we visited two separate islands in addition to Male.  The first, Vommuli Island located in the Dhaalu Atoll, is approximately 69 km south of the capital Male and is reached via sea plane.  The St Regis resort on the island opened in September of 2016 and had been open a little over 9 months when we arrived.  The hotel occupies 100% of the island and houses about 200 staff in addition to hotel guests.  When you arrive, you are greeted by some of the hotel staff lined up on the dock and waving.

Think Fantasy Island.  da plane, da plane…..

Transport in the Maldives

Getting to the island requires a short sea plane ride from Male.  The St. Regis will meet you at the international terminal and take you to a private lounge at the Sea Plane terminal to wait on your flight.  You can get light hors D’oeuvres, snacks and drinks while you wait inside a small but nicely appointed lounge.  The trip on the sea plane is only about 45 minutes and usually you make one stop to drop off other passengers at other resorts before you arrive at o the St Regis.

The St Regis Resort

St Regis Resort

St Regis Resort

This is probably one of the most amazing hotels in which we have stayed. Our spacious over water villa had floor to ceiling windows that looked out over the ocean.  Everything in the room was new with lots of automation. We had a 20 X 50 foot (6 x 18 meters) or so deck which had an infinity pool and a staircase that led down to the ocean.  I know it is difficult to suffer through these types of accommodations, but someone has to do it. 🙂

Like many resorts in the Maldives, we were assigned a personal butler to attend to our needs during our stay.  This is where it gets a little creepy.  The hotel will go online to look up guests, go to their Facebook page if it is accessible, or other social media sites to find out about the guests.  One couple on their honeymoon told us that the hotel had printed copies of photos from their wedding that were posted on line and had them in their room when they arrived.

The staff on the island are also supposed to know the guests.  They use Whatsapp to communicate information about guests to other staff members.  So, when I went out for a dive one day and came back looking for my wife, the first staff member I came too told me where she was and what she was doing.  This place was over the top with service.


Private Dive Charter

Private Dive Charter

This hotel provides a wide range of amenities, including water sports, boat tours around the area, tennis, yoga, complete fitness center, great pool, and a beautiful library.  At this type of property, your only options are the activities on the island.  We came to dive in the Maldives so no problem, we were in the water every day.  For others visiting these islands, you should consider carefully the activities available at the resort you choose.  The diving here was a bit expensive, but the service was amazing.

Ride along the boardwalk

Ride along the boardwalk

Your Butler will arrange almost any activity you desire and virtually whenever you would like it.  They even provided bicycles to our room, so we can ride to and from our over water villa back to the main part of the property.

The resort had only been open about 7 months when we arrived, and everything was new.  The dive boat was great and each day we were typically the only divers on the boat.  I think some people go to the Maldives for other reasons than diving……

Eating – Maldives Style

Dining by the pool

Dining by the pool

Food on the island was amazing.  From the marvelous breakfast buffet at Alba, to the Orientale, great Asian cuisine, to the Whale Bar you will not be disappointed.  Cargo and Crust offer casual beach front dining and you can always order room service.  If you like wines there is a very interesting underground wine bar, Decanter where you can sample a variety of wines during an elegant bespoke five-course meal.

You can arrange a private dinner on the beach or on a roof top where the view of the stars is breath taking.

A thoroughly wonderful experience that I would love to do again.
The Pool is Open…..

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Coral Bleaching

Coral Bleaching

Coral Bleaching, Maldives

Coral Bleaching threatens much of our fragile coral reefs around the world.   In 1998, sea-temperature warming caused extensive coral bleaching in the Maldives.  As a result, almost two thirds of coral reefs died.

Again, in May of 2016, the coral reefs of the Maldives experienced a severe bleaching incident. Furthermore, the surface water temperatures reached an all-time high at 31 degrees Celsius in May 2016. Consequently, over 95% of coral reef around the islands died.

Scientist Azeez Hakim stated:

“before 1998, we never thought that this reef would die. We had always taken for granted that these animals would be there, that this reef would be there forever. El Niño gave us a wake-up call that these things are not going to be there forever. “

In Australia, back-to-back bleaching events in 2016 and 2017 devastated a 1,500 km stretch of the famous barrier reef. While, before 2016 there had only been two bleaching events along the Great Barrier Reef in the past two decades.

We have seen a number of mass bleaching events in 1998, 2002, 2006, 2016 and in 2017 in various parts of the globe.  Furthermore, with these bleaching events we are seeing not only an increase in events but also an increase in the number of regions impacted per event.

Coral Bleaching – Why should we be concerned?

Coral reefs cover less than one tenth of one percent of the earth’s oceans.  Yet these same reefs contain one quarter of known marine fish species (Smithsonian Institute).

Reefs are formed by Corals “… animals that live in symbiosis with algae, a plant,”.  This is according to Jessica Bellworthy a PhD student at Professor Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences. The university’s study of Red Sea corals seeks to understand their ability to resist extreme temperatures.

Corals and algae “provide services for each other.”  Algae provide “up to 90 percent of the coral animal’s food” through photosynthesis, said Bellworthy.  “When ocean temperatures get too hot, this symbiosis, this relationship, breaks down,” she said.

Maldives, Island Paradise

Yet in the Red Sea, where I have been diving many times, ocean temperatures can be much higher.

The Red Sea routinely experiences temperatures higher than the Maldives or in Australia.  So, could the Red Sea corals offer an opportunity to introduce “bleach resistant” coral into other threatened areas?

Dr. Fine’s research regarding Red Sea corals may provide potential avenues and approaches to protect our coral reefs in the future.

Scripts Institute of Oceanography

Scripts Institute conducted a study of coral bleaching in the central Red Sea in the summer of 2010.  During this event the region experienced up to 10-11 degree increases in temperature for many weeks. Correspondingly, the study found that shallow reefs and inshore reefs had a higher prevalence of bleaching. Furthermore, while Red Sea reefs are subject to increasing temperature pressures, the study showed that these reefs have a much higher temperature change tolerance.  Therefore, the implications are quite clear.   Corals that have lived and thrived in higher temperature environments are better suited to survive higher temperature seas in other areas.  Could these more temperature tolerant corals provide the basis for saving coral reefs in other areas?

Opportunities for Change

Consequently, saving our coral reef system is critical to maintaining food stock, industries and related jobs in many countries around the world.  However, introducing non-native coral species into a specific environment poses a number or questions and risks.  Should we introduce corals that are already acclimated to higher temperatures to other environments? What would be the impacts of introducing non-native species? Would this help eliminate bleaching events or reduce their impacts?

The answer to these questions any other related questions could determine our ongoing ability to feed ourselves and our children in the future.

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Scalloped Hammerhead - Elegance in Motion

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark- Elegance in Motion

A south swell has been running for several days with the wind blowing briskly out of the north.  It is Friday morning and I am looking forward to scuba diving with the Hammerhead Shark.  The dive site for today is about an hour from Lahaina Harbor across the Pailolo Channel and on the northeastern end of Molokai.  This dive will take approximately five hours from the time we leave the harbor until our return.

I checked into the Lahaina Divers shop, whom I highly recommend, around 6:50 am. I have been diving with them in Maui for over 10 years.  They have great boats and a skilled and highly professional crew.  Lahaina Divers is the only dive operation that has a regular Hammerhead Shark dive to Molokai.  After checking in, I park my car and then head down to the boat slip.  After all of the divers are aboard and a short safety briefing from the crew we head for Molokai.  A

Large Scalloped Hammerhead

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark – Encounter with 12 foot female

few of the divers on board have done this dive, including myself, many times.  However, for most on board this will be their fist dive on Molokai and the first time with Hammerhead sharks.

The Boat

The boat heads toward the dive site, staying close to the western shore of Maui, until we are almost directly across from the dive site.  The boat then makes a sharp turn to cross the channel.  The seas are running four to six feet with an occasional swell in excess of eight feet.  Some first timers on the boat get a bit nervous.  It takes about 25 to 30 minutes to cross over to Molokai and by that time a couple of divers on the boat that are sea sick.  This channel is one of the roughest in the Hawaiian islands.  Its name literally means “crazy fishermen”.  Because if someone was going to go fishing across this channel they must be crazy.

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark - Exploration

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark – Exploration

The captain of the boat gives us a 10 minute warning telling us it is time to put on our gear and get ready to enter the water.  We put on our wet suits, BC’s, and fins while sitting in assigned stations on the boat.  The water is rough so we wait on the crew to help us stand up and move into position at the back of the boat.  But, we don’t enter yet.  We wait for the captain to move the boat into position and give us the signal to enter the water.  The crew tells us “1 minute”, “30 seconds”, “captain divers are ready”, then we wait for the captain.  The back of the boat swings round toward the islet, then the captain yells “dive, dive, dive”.  Our group jumps almost in unison and we are all in the water within 15 seconds.

The Dive

The surface is choppy and after making sure all divers are OK, we rapidly begin our descent.  The water is light to medium blue for the first thirty to forty feet with rays of sunlight filtering around us.  Then the water begins to slowly darken as we descend on the dive site know as Fish Rain.  The reef is on our right and blue water is to the left.  The bottom slopes gently downward from about 40 feet to around 120 feet.  While I love the reef, I constantly look into the blue, hoping to see a Scalloped Hammerhead Shark.

Fish Rain is located on Mokuhooniki Rock and is one of the most bio-diverse dive sites on the planet.  The density of marine species, the health of the corals and the presence of pelagics make this a must dive. But, again we have come to see the Hammerhead Shark.

Scalloped Hammerhead Close Up

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark Close Up

Advanced Dive

The dive starts out in the lee of the islet which is somewhat protected from the crazy waters of the Pailolo Channel.  While this site can on rare occasion be like glass, it most often has swells of 2 to 4 feet and can grow on occasion to well over 6 feet.  This is not a dive for the novice diver.  This is an advanced dive and anyone thinking about going should carefully consider their level of experience and confidence.

You enter the water quickly from a moving boat a quickly descend to around 50 feet.  After your dive group assembles you will slowly make you way around the Islet in an arc.  The dive is a drift dive and can be one of the most difficult dives you will every make due to the entry into and exit from the water.  Again this dive is not for the novice, but oh what a dive.  I have been on this site dozens and dozens of times yet it never ceases to amaze me.

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark

Scalloped Hammerhead In Close

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark In Close

The Scalloped Hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) is a species of hammerhead shark, and part of the family Sphyrnidae. This shark can be found over continental and insular shelves and in nearby deeper water. It is found in warm temperate and tropical waters, worldwide from 46°N to 36°S. It can be found down to depths over 500 m (1,600 ft), but is most often found above 25 m (82 ft).[10] During the day, they are more often found close to shore, and at night, they hunt further offshore. Adults are found alone, in pairs, or in small schools, while young sharks occur in larger schools.[1] see this Wikipedia article for more details on Scalloped Hammerhead Sharks

The Scalloped Hammerhead Shark in Hawaii has been known to reach lengths of up to 13 feet however 6-8 feet is typically the average.  Near Mokuhooniki Rock, the Scalloped Hammerheads tend to be adults of 6 to 8 feet with the occasional shark measuring well over 10 feet.  These sharks can be found from very near the surface to about 130 ft.  We see them very often cruising just off the bottom of the channel between Molokai and Mokuhooniki Rock, where the depths run typically 100 to 130 feet.  We will see them in groups of 1 to 3 but many times you can see groups of 5 to 10 and occasionally many more.  On my best dive here I have just under 50 Scalloped Hammerheads and have been literally surrounded as I am taking photographs.

Observing Scalloped Hammerhead Sharks

These are magnificent creatures. It is a wonderful experience to remain absolutely still in the water and observe these sharks as they interact with you.  I have have had many occasions where sharks have swam with me for 10 to 15 minutes.  They are curious and will come in close to you and your group if you will remember a few key things:

  1. Keep your head on a swivel as you dive.  You want to be able to spot the sharks as soon as possible so your behavior does not cause them to move away from you
  2. When you see the sharks and you see they are heading in the general direction of your group slow down immediately and/or stop and observe their behavior
  3. If the sharks are moving away from your group keep swimming toward them and keep looking all around.  There are more than likely other sharks near by.
  4. Stay at 40 to 60 feet when you are looking for the sharks and then drop down to their depth when you see them.  This will conserve air and reduce the danger of nitrogen narcosis
  5. When the sharks are getting close to you stay still and let them swim to you.  I was getting ready for a wonderful encounter with a 12+foot female Scalloped Hammerhead Shark when a person in our dive group start swimming rapidly down towards the shark to get their “go-pro” shot.  The shark simply turned away and the diver probably did not get a good shot and the rest of the dive group was denied the experience of interacting with a large hammerhead.

The Pool Is Open

As I have said before, if not my very favorite, definitely in my top five.  This site has an amazing reef, tremendous bio-diversity, a very healthy reef system, does not see many divers and it has ….. Scalloped Hammerhead Sharks.

If you are an advanced diver, this site is definitely for you.  Maholo nui loa and safe diving.

The pool is open…..

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Just Another Day at the Office

What a day, beautiful sky, little wind, flat seas, wonderful temperature and Whales!Lokikng for Whales

Grey Whales

Gray Whale

I love the southern coast of California.  In fact, we have the privilege to live next to one of the most diverse  populations on the planet.

  • In fact, numerous whales, can be seen traveling up and down the coast.  These  include;
  • Gray Whale – Eschrichtius robustus;
  • Blue Whale – Balaenoptera musculus;
  • Humpback Whale – Megaptera novaeangliae;
  • Minke Whale – Balaenoptera acutorostrata ;
  • Sperm Whale – Physeter macrocephalus;
  • Pygmy Sperm Whale – Kogia breviceps;
  • Brydes Whale – Balaenoptera cf. brydei;
  • Sei Whale – Balaenoptera borealis;
  • Baird’s beaked whale – Berardius bairdii;
  • Blainville’s beaked whale – Mesoplodon densirostris;
  • Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale – Mesoplodon ginkgodens;
  • Perrin’s beaked whale –  Mesoplodon perrini;
  • Stejneger’s beaked whale – Mesoplodon stejnegeri;
  • Cuvier’s beaked whale – Ziphius cavirostris;  and
  • Fin Whale – Balaenoptera physalus.  

In addition, these giants can be seen at different times during the year along the coast of Southern California.  Amazingly, several of these animals have multiple thousand mile journeys every year.  Typically, traveling  between rich feeding grounds in Alaska to warm waters in Mexico.

Gray Whales Migration

Specifically, Grays can be seen beginning in November.  At that time, they are heading south to the warm-water lagoons of the Baja peninsula.  Then beginning in February and March they head north to the feeding grounds of the Bering sea.

Consequently, by late December to early January Grays begin to arrive in the calving lagoons of Baja. Moreover, the first to arrive, pregnant mothers, look to the lagoons for protection.  While, the pregnant whales  give birth to their calves, single females seeking out male companions in order to mate.

Morover, the three primary lagoons that the whales seek in Baja California are Scamnon’s , San Ignacio and Magdalena. Scamnon’s were named after a notorious whale hunter.  While he discovered the lagoons in the 1850’s, he later became one of the first protectors of the Grays.


The California Grays were called the devil fish until the early 1970’s.   At that time a fisherman in Laguna San Ignacio named Pachico Mayoral reached out and touched a Gray mother that kept approaching his boat. The fisherman have been interacting with the whales ever since.  Today the whales in Laguna San Ignacio are protected.  Moreover, it is possible to visit a whale camp and have the same experience that Pachico had.

Throughout February and March, the first Gray Whales to leave the lagoons are the males and single females. The other whales start leaving the lagoons once they have mated.  The beautiful creatures then begin the long trek back north.  There they will enjoy the summer feeding grounds in the Bering seas. Pregnant females and nursing mothers with their newborn calves are the last to leave the lagoons. They leave only when their calves are ready for the journey, which is usually from late March to mid-April.

Accordingly, Grays appear most prominently in wintertime.  While, Humpbacks and Blues migrate during the summer months, from early June to late September.
The Pool is Open……



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Knob Hill is an interesting and very nice dive site.  It is fairly shallow about 55 to 60 feet (16 to 18 meters) and teeming with life.

Knob Hill

Knob Hill, Lanai

However, it is often not possible to dive on this site due to strong currents .  Knob Hill is just off the coast of Lanai by the Four Seasons Hotel.  Knob Hill’s name comes from a large rock formation near the surface that is supported by four columns.  This is a large dive site on the south side of Lanai that is quite exposed. While, I have been diving around Lanai for 12+ years I have only been on this site three or four times.

Rating = 3.86 out of 5

  • Visibility – moderate to very good
  • Access – Moderate; boat only and 45 to 50 minutes from Lahaina Harbor
  • Current – moderate strong most of time
  • Depth to 60 ft / 18 m
  • Reef health Hard / Soft Corals – Very Good
  • Marine species variety – Very Good
  • Pelagics / Mammals / Turtles / Rays – moderate to good, typical at least 1 to 3 sightings up close, sometimes many more

The only reason Knob Hill is not rated higher, is the current makes it a very difficult dive site to dive 80% of the time.  Correspondingly, if the current is mild this is an awesome site.

Knob Hill Overview

Knob Hill Reef, Steven W Smeltzer, Lanai

Knob Hill Reef

Knob Hill has a number of swim-throughs and volcanic structures, such as the “table” above that make the site quite interesting. The marine life on the site is varied and abundant. As a matter of fact, you will almost always find large schools fish. These schools typically consist of Pennant Butterflyfishes, Dascyllus, Yellow Tangs, Sea Turtles, White-tip Reef Sharks, various eels and much more. Once the boat is on the mooring at Knob Hill, the dive master make take you on several different routes around this expansive dive site. Due to the current and infrequent visits by divers, the hard coral here is quite healthy. In addition, there is a nice swim through / cave where you can frequently find White-tip Reef Sharks. Furthermore, you can also see quite a few nudibranchs on this site and rare species such as the endemic Yellow-striped Coris and Reticulated Butterflyfish.

Knob Hill, White-tip Reef Shark, Steven W Smeltzer,

White-tip Reef Shark, Profile, Triaenodon obesus, (Rüppell, 1837), mano lalakea, Lanai, Hawaii

In addition, Knob Hill has a nice swim through on the site where you can many times find White-tip Reef Sharks. In fact, this shark, in particular, was quite curious and swam with me through the swim through. He even gave me a nice profile. 🙂

Follow my blog page Hawaiian Dive Site Reviews, to read reviews of other great dives in Hawaii.

Visit my website for other underwater photographs and/or follow me on Twitter.

The pool is open…..



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Scuba Diving Molokai can be awesome, especially at Mokuhooniki Rock. In fact, the reef is one of the most interesting that I have dove on anywhere on the planet. Specifically, the variety of marine species, the isolation and  relatively untouched environment make this a one of a kind location.  But,……we all come for the Hammerheads.

scuba diving Molokai

Mokuhooniiki Rock, Molokai

Mokuhooniki Rock or islet is located at 21 07′ 40″N, 156 42’20″W just off the North eastern coast of Molokai.  Also known as Fish Rain, this site is one of my top ten scuba diving sites in the world.

Specifically, interacting with such a variety of marine life combined with large pelagic species makes this place special.  In fact, when scuba diving Molokai Mokuhooniki Rock, you encounter Hammerhead sharks on almost every dive.  Moreover, you will also see a rich and diverse ecosystem.  To illustrate, large schools of Damsels, Butterflyfishes, along with Dolphins and Tiger Sharks inhabit these waters.  As a matter of fact, you will be hard pressed to find other more diverse dive sites.

As I stated before, the abundance and variety of marine life in such a pristine condition are exceptional.  If you are on Maui and you are an advanced diver, you simply must do this dive.

Scuba Diving Molokai – The Adventure

Scuba Diving Molokai (Steven W Smeltzer)

Spinner Dolphins Molokai Hawaii

Scuba Diving Molkai can be adventure diving at its peak.  First of all, it takes about 45 minutes to an hour to go from the harbor in Lahaina to Mokuhooniiki Rock.  Secondly, crossing the Pailolo (means crazy fishermen) channel alone can bring seasoned divers to their knees.  It can be quite rough.  This is not a beginners dive site.  In fact, even if you are an advanced rated diver it can be challenging.

Thirdly, you should be extremely comfortable exiting a moving boat and reentering a moving boat in potentially rough and choppy seas.  While, I have been on this site dozens of times and it can be like glass, it is extremely rare.  The site can also have 6+ foot waves.  I have seen divers break ribs on their reentering the boat.  While others become extremely agitated and near panic on the pick up.

I remember one dive in particular where the waves, even in the lee of the rock, were running about 8 to 10 feet.  While the boat came around to pick us up I was literally on the top of one wave.  I was literally looking down at the captain of the boat.  Who by the way, was on the top deck of a double deck dive boat.  In fact, the boat was some 5 feet or so below me in the trough of a wave.  With this in mind, I thought this is going to be a very interesting pickup.

But……what a great scuba diving site.

The Dive

When scuba diving Molokai, you enter the dive site typically in the lee of the islet on the right above.  The

Scalloped Hammerhead (Steven W Smeltzer)

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini, Molokai Hawaii, Moku Ho’oniki Rock

crew will let you know about ten minutes before it is time to enter the water.  At this point, they will begin lining you up at the back of the boat one at a time.  You will  have your mask and fins on, BC inflated. In addition, you will be holding anything you want to take into the water with you, including cameras.

If you have not entered a dive site from a moving boat before this will a bit of an adventure for you.  Think of it as channeling your inner Navy Seal.  When you are lined up at the back of the boat, the captain will swing the boat around.  When the boat points toward the islet and all divers are ready, the crew will say Divers Ready.

Dive, Dive, Dive

They will then begin counting down two minutes, one minute, etc.  When the Captain gives his ok the crew will give you a signal “Dive, Dive, Dive”.  Do NOT enter the water before the crew has given you the OK, and said “Dive, Dive, Dive”.  At this point, divers will quickly enter the water one after the other while the boat is moving.

Typically up to 8 divers may enter in 15 to 20 seconds.  You will then meet you dive guide on the surface and all begin your descent together.  You are usually on the surface no more than 30 seconds before beginning your descent.

And what a wonderful descent.  The islet will be on one side and you will see a gradual slope towards the bottom beneath you.  The

Fish Rain (Steven W Smeltzer)

Fish Rain, Molokai Hawaii

depth is about 100 to 110 feet in the channel but only about 50 to 60 where you will be dropped off.  When scuba diving Molokai, visibility is usually very good allowing you to see 100 to 150+ feet in the distance.  And at Mokuhooniiki Rock there are fish everywhere.

The dive itself is basically a half-circle around Mokuhooniiki Rock and the boat will pick you up on the other side.  Dive time is usually about 50 minutes give or take depending on depth of the dive and your air consumption.  If you dive Nitrox, this is a great spot to use it as you can get a little more time at depth when looking for the Hammerheads.  I usually hang out to the left of the group as I don’t want to have a lot of other divers close to me when I am trying to get a shot.

Getting the Shot

The Hammerheads sharks are a bit skittish.  If you or someone in your group swims rapidly towards them, they will simply move away.  While scuba diving Molokai, the key is to go slow and easy and be patient.  As you start your descent from the boat you will follow the slope down to around 50 feet and then do one of two things.  Either start swimming out into the blue and looking for the sharks, which we do many times on the first dive, or you will begin to swim around the islet.

There can be a bit of current here but usually it is not too bad.  Or if there is a ripping current it is usually going the direction of the dive once you pass the corner of the islet and it simply becomes a drift dive.  When Scuba Diving Molokai, you can see anything from dolphin, to Tiger Sharks (not often), to Greys, to Hammerheads, to a Monk seal.  You may also encounter a variety of rays and there have even been a few rare Humpback Whale sightings while on the dive (December to April).  The abundance of various fishes and eels will blow you away.  There are also many endemic species on this site so be attentive and take your time.

Getting Back on the Boat

When you surface you will stay with your dive group until the boat comes to get you.  You will need a safety sausage to go on this dive and at least one of you will inflate the sausage at the end of the dive to signal the boat.  If it is rough it is very important to stay as close together as possible while you are waiting to be picked up.  Their could be one or max two other groups in the water, so you may have to wait several minutes to be picked up.  Again be patient.

Scuba Diving Molokai (Steven W Smeltzer)

Molokai Pickup

The boat will come very close to you and throw a line out to the divers.  You have to swim to the line and grab a hold and then begin to slowly move up the line towards the boat.  You will take off your fins while you are holding on the line and have those in one hand to give to one of the crew as they help you aboard.

If you have a camera as I do, then you will give them your camera first to the crew and then take off your fins. Then you will proceed towards the boat and use a ladder to board.  Scuba diving Molokai can be quite intimidating if you have never done something like this.  However, the crew is exceptionally good at what they do.  Listen to them and do as they say and you will be fine.  Believe me this dive will be worth it.

Rinse and Repeat

Scuba Diving Molokai (Steven W Smeltzer)

Maui Flame

After you finish your first dive and complete your surface interval, you will basically repeat the same dive on your second dive.  But there is enough scuba diving Molokai to interest you no matter how many times you dive it.

After scuba diving Molokai you get to relax on the boat ride back to Lahaina and enjoy the other adventures that Maui has to offer.

Long may the Fish Rain…..the pool is open

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Scuba Diving Lighthouse is always a treat. It is located off the island of Lanai which provides some of the better dive sites in Maui County.

Scuba Diving Lighthouse

Scuba Diving Lighthouse

Lighthouse is a great dive site that is not visited often due to the distance from Maui.  I dive this site with Lahaina Divers, my favorite dive shop on Maui.

This dive is usually a drift dive charter that runs each Thursday.  Check out Lahaina Divers, dive schedule for more information.

It is about an hour around to this site from Lahaina Harbor.  In addition, it is usually a nice boat ride, but the channel between Maui and Lanai can be rough.

Therefore, if you are prone to sea sickness, make sure to take Bonine, ginger, use the patch, etc., before you get on the boat.

Lighthouse Rating: 3.11 out of 5

Lighthouse gets its name from a structure on shore that
resembles a small lighthouse.

Scuba Diving Lighthouse

Scuba Diving Lighthouse

This dive site has a number of large boulders strewn around the bottom and has a wide variety of marine life.

Lighthouse can get blown out by wind and current and be very cloudy.  Don’t worry, the boat captain and dive master will check out the conditions prior to getting in the water.

However, the conditions on my last dive were great.  In fact, the sea was very flat, the current quite mild and visibility was 100+ feet.

It was a wonderful dive. Great marine life variety and a couple of sharks.

Scuba Diving Lighthouse: What You Will See

In addition, you can typically see smaller White-tip Reef Sharks, a wide variety of butterfly fishes, Triggerfishes and more.  Specifically, make sure you check in the cracks and crevices.  There you can find octopus, a wide variety of eels, crabs, shrimps and other small marine life.  Also, the hard corals here are healthy and in good shape.  This is due to receiving a large amount of nutrient and not having many divers on the site.

Scuba Diving Lighthouse

Whitemouth Moray Eel

Scuba Diving Lighthouse is a treat if you are going to be on the Maui for a few days.  I usually dive on Lanai two or three times during each trip and Lighthouse is often the second dive on Lahiana Divers’ Lanai drift dive.

Check out my website for more underwater photographs on Scuba Diving Lanai and follow me on Facebook and Twitter.

The pool is open…

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Ahhh… Hawaii.  Back on the island of Maui and looking forward to some great diving.

First Cathedrals Light From Above

The day begins with a short ride over to the island of Lanai for our first dive at First Cathedrals.

I am diving with Lahaina Divers, my favorite dive operator on the island.  I have been diving with them for almost 10 years and they are a great choice for scuba diving Lanai.


First Cathedrals is a lava tube that rises to the surface of the ocean.

First Cathedrals, Lanai Hawaii

As the name implies, there is a large underwater dome inside the lava tube.

Basically it is a large cave with a number of openings where light shines down into the “cathedral area”.

In addition, this is one of the most popular sites for scuba diving Lanai.  While I have been on the site dozens of times, I still thoroughly enjoy the dive.

The dive boat will anchor on a buoy at the edge of the dive site. From there, it is a short swim to the cathedral.  The entrance into the lava tube looks small and dark, but the interior is quite large.

The “cathedral” measures approximately 60 feet in length and the height varies from 10 feet to 40 feet.

Scuba Diving Lanai: Inside the Lava Tube

Scuba Diving First Cathedrals Scuba Diving Lanai

If you have ever been to a church or cathedral with stained glass windows, you probably noticed the light shining through the glass as you entered the chapel or sanctuary.

This dive site gets its name from a similar effect caused by the light shining in through the holes in the lava tube, e.g, the stain glass windows.

Another interesting feature of this dive site is the exit from the lava tube. It is fondly know as the “shotgun”, because when you exit, the surge may “shoot” you out of the cathedral as you surf the pressure wave. Especially, if the wave action is strong, it reminds me of what it must feel like to be “flushed”.

But don’t worry; the exit is wide and I go through it with my camera with no problems.

First Cathedrals Into the Light

If you are concerned about exiting this way, just let your dive master know and you can exit via the way you came in and just circle around the pinnacle to meet up with your group.

Scuba Diving First Cathedrals

Scuba Diving Lanai First Cathedrals

This site also has several other interesting lava formations off the main lava tube and a variety of marine life.

First Cathedrals has been the site for numerous underwater weddings and proposals and it is a great place for underwater photography.

Indeed, getting the best photographs, requires everyone going into the “cathedral” to be careful not to stir up the bottom,  Otherwise, you will get a lot of backscatter in your photos.

Getting the Shot

First Cathedrals, Lanai Hawaii

In order to get the best lighting effects, I check the forecast to see when it is going to be sunny and then compare that to the Lahaina Divers’ schedule.

In fact, you will get the best photos when it is sunny.  Then you can see rays of light coming through the holes in the lava tube and shining down inside.

Interestingly, you can frequently see turtles, dolphin, eagle rays, sharks and wide variety of fish, eels and coral.  Please check out some of my other photos of First Cathedrals and underwater photography of Hawaii on my website.

The pool is open….

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The San Gabriel Fine Arts Association is hosting an exhibit titled Marine / Aquatic Exhibition from April 14 to May 23.  The exhibit includes artwork that reflects a myriad of images and themes in the Marine/Aquatic environment including, Oceanic Scenery, Sea Animals, People at Sea, Marine Vessels and the Marine ecosystem.

I will have several aluminum prints on display including:


Star of India


Star of India
















Predator – Hammerhead shark, Molokai Hawaii


Predator – Hammerhead Shark












Carthaginian II

Vintage Carthaginian II

Carthaginian II












USS Kittiwake

USS Kittiwake at rest Grand Cayman

USS Kittiwake












Manta Ray Trio

Manta-Ray-Trio Kona Hawaii

Manta Ray Trio












The San Gabriel Fine Arts Association  (SGFAA) is a non-profit organization, founded in 1965 for the purpose of promoting traditional fine art in the community and to provide a venue for member artists to show their work. The association maintains a large group of over 200 members and represents all of Southern California and several states.

The SSGFAA supports awareness and education in the arts from aspiring artists to professionals by providing a venue and platform for members to display their works, providing art classes and art demonstrations, and encouraging growth and exploration in various forms of art to our community.

In addition to my work their will be a number of other artists displaying a variety of photographs, paintings and other work.  I would encourage everyone to go out and support the San Gabriel Fine Arts Association and their ongoing efforts at education and awareness of the arts in southern California.

The venue is at 320 Mission Deive, San Gabriel, CA the next door to the San Gabriel Playhouse and near the historic San Gabriel Mission and provides great ambience for the exhibit.

Come support the local arts community and enjoy historic San Gabriel.



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Into the Shadows

“Where are the ancient mariners from earlier days
Who roamed the oceans’ ever changing maze;
Where have they gone?” cry voices from the deep
And caverns of darkness answer: “They sleep!”
What greetings come from the voiceless dead?
Did they always live in constant dread?
What salutation, welcome, or reply,
What pleasure from the shells that lifelessly lie?
They are no longer here; they all are gone
Into the shadows

by Steven W Smeltzer
Green Sea Turtles

Sea Turtles, what lies ahead for these intriguing animals?

Hawksbill Turtle PortraitOnce numbering in the hundreds of thousands as little as a hundred years ago, the Green Sea Turtle, the Hawksbill, the Leatherback, Kemp’s Ridely and the Olive Ridley are all listed as endangered species.  While the Loggerhead Turtle is the only sea turtle not currently on the endangered species list, conservation efforts-including placing these turtles on the endangered species list and the actions of many countries and individuals has helped select population groups.  However, much work is yet to be done.

I remember my first encounter with Sea Turtles, many years ago, as if it were yesterday. I had just returned from a business trip to Australia and had stopped by the big island of Hawaii for a little relaxation before heading back to the states. I had wanted to start scuba diving for several years and the resort I was staying at had a dive shop on site that offered an “introductory dive” experience. After some brief drills in the pool, I was off to the boat and my first scuba diving adventure.

We were the second group to enter the water and just after my giant stride to enter the water, I looked to my left and there were 3 Green Sea Green Sea Turtles, Chelonia mydas, just off the reef not more than 5 meters from the dive master and me. It was love at first sight; the turtles were very relaxed and the dive master did an excellent job of having us just hover and watch the turtles as they swam in and around our small group and snacked at the local reef “deli”.

The Sea Turtle population in Hawaii is one of the few population groups that have been increasing over the last 30 years due to the actions of both the local government and concerned citizens. Major population reductions around the world over the last three generations show a decline in the number of mature females between 48% to 67%-depending on the species.  There are startling reductions in the overall population sizes in a number of key nesting sites.

Green Sea Turtle Damaged BillSea Turtles are fighting for survival.  They are hunted for their shells, eggs, meat and skin.  Their habitats are under stress from human development, they fight accidental capture in fishing gear, and they face new diseases, worsened by changes in the environment.  Nesting sites are critically important to the survival of wild Sea Turtles and we must find ways to protect these sites in a responsible fashion or we may soon face a time where the only sea turtles to be found are in an aquarium.

Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas:

Green - CERN Redlist

Eastern Pacific Ocean, Mexico – 96% to 98% reduction

Southeast Asia, Indonesia (Berau Islands) – 96% reductionGreen Sea Turtle North Wall

Southeast Asia, Malaysia (Sarawak) – 94% to 99% reduction

Southeast Asia, Peninsular Malaysia – 88% to 92% reduction

Western Atlantic Ocean, Venezuela (Aves Is.) – 98% reduction

Mediterranean Sea, Turkey – 93% reduction

Eastern Indian Ocean, Myanmar – 89% to 90% reduction

Northern Indian Ocean, PRD Yemen (Sharma) – 74% to 80% reduction

Eastern Indian Ocean, Indonesia (West Java) – 96% reduction

Hawksbill Sea Turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata:

Hawksbill CERN Redlist

The Hawksbill has decreased an estimated 85+% over the last 100 years from over 70,000 turtles to roughly 10,000 animals today.

Indian Ocean, Madagascar – 90% reductionHawksbill and Soft Coral

Indian Ocean, Egypt – 99% reduction

Indian Ocean, Maldives – 96% reduction

Pacific Ocean, Milman Island 46% reduction

Pacific Ocean, Indonesia 93% reduction

Atlantic Ocean, Bahamas 96% reduction

Atlantic Ocean, Nicaragua 97% reduction

Atlantic Ocean, Brazil 80% reduction

Atlantic Ocean, Panama 95% reduction

 Loggerhead, Caretta caretta

Loggerhead - CERN Redlist

Leatherback, Dermochelys coriacea

Leatherback - CERN Redlist

East Pacific Ocean, Mexico 98% reductionGreen Sea Turtle Ambient Light Mala Pier

East Pacific Ocean, Costa Rica 95% reduction

West Pacific Ocean, Malaysia 100% reduction

West Pacific Ocean, Indonesia 76% reduction


Green Sea Turtle Feeling Free

Because of the threats facing the Sea Turtle it is evident that these turtles face a measurable risk of extinction. The time for action is now to help preserve these wonderful creatures for future generations.  Conservation actions, such as those in islands of the Seychelles, Hawaii, Florida and other locations demonstrate that the turtle populations will increase with aggressive conservation activities, but without specific protective actions these turtles are in critical danger.

Take the pledge.  Educate yourself regarding the dangers facing Sea Turtles and commit yourself to tell at five other people. #takethepledge, #conservation, #seaturtles

Note: Endangered species information and population estimates are provided by CERN Redlist

More information on the dangers facing Sea Turtles can be found at:

World wildlife


NOAA Fisheries

Sea Turtle Conservancy

Also visit my gallery for more Sea Turtle photographs

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